Novel catalytic methods for the upgrading of coal liquids
Reproducible preparation of a number of modified clay and clay-like materials by both conventional and microwave-assisted chemistry, and their subsequent characterisation, has been achieved, These materials are designed as hydrocracking catalysts for the upgrading of liquids obtained by the processing of coal. Contact with both coal derived liquids and heavy petroleum resids has demonstrated that these catalysts are superior to established proprietary catalysts in terms of both initial activity and deactivation resistance, Of particular activity were a chromium-pillared montmorillonite and a tin intercalated laponite, Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH's) have exhibited encouraging thermal stability. Development of novel methods for hydrocracking coal derived liquids, using a commercial microwave oven, modified reaction vessels and coal model compounds has been attempted. Whilst safe and reliable operation of a high pressure microwave "bomb" apparatus employing hydrogen, has been achieved, no hydrotreatment reactions occurred.