Gender differences in academe
This thesis focuses on consideration of gender differences in the academic profession. Analysis utilises a unique dataset, rich in its variable base, for academic staff from five old established Scottish universities during 1995-1996. These universities are institutions with a strong sense of tradition and respected research reputations. We therefore analyse the most research orientated segment of the academic profession, the established universities, arguably the most influential, as their behaviour may be an important signal to the entire profession. This study is the first systematic investigation of this sector of the labour market in the UK. It focuses on three main issues: subject specialisation and the distribution of academics across faculties; male and female salaries in academia; and the determinants of job satisfaction for academics across gender and components of job satisfaction. The analysis undertaken attempts to develop the economic literature on gender differences in a number of ways. First it analyses these issues in the context of a single profession. It attempts to replicate with British data some US findings. It undertakes for the academic profession, analysis which has previously only been undertaken at a national level. Finally, it runs analysis with a set of variables more relevant to the study of gender differences in academic than have been used in previous papers. Analysis reveals a gross gender salary differential in the order of 30% for the whole dataset, or 15% when research assistants are excluded. Gender differences in promotion opportunity, subject choice, salary affiliation, but not overall job satisfaction are uncovered, although reports of satisfaction with salary, job security and promotion prospects do vary by gender. We find evidence of the role of discrimination, individual choice and differential productivity in the explanation of gender differences uncovered.