Bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein in biological fluids
The objectives of the current study were: 1) to examine serum bPAG concentration during pregnancy, and in the post-partum period in relation to the overall nutritional and metabolic status and post-partum anoestrous period; 2) to investigate bPAG decay models for postulating distribution and metabolism of bPAG in the blood circulation using half-life (t1/2) and to compare the t1/2 values between breeds and nutritional treatments for the clearance of bPAG; 3) to examine the suitability of the radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measuring bPAG in urine, saliva and milk, to investigate temporal relationships between bPAG in these fluids and that in the serum, and to assess the potential of bPAG in these fluids for pregnancy diagnosis in cows. Estimation of total bPAG disappearance from plasma per day during week 1 post-partum did not differ between the breeds. Urinary bPAG, over the same period of time, was lower for Welsh Black than Simmental and Charolais cows (0.45 vs 0.53 and 0.59 nmol (s.e.d 0.03) p<0.05) but not for Aberdeen Angus cows (0.48 nmol); bPAG in saliva was lower for Welsh Black than Charolais and Aberdeen Angus cows (1.65 vs 2.42 and 2.49 nmol (s.e.d 0.11) p<0.05) but not for Simmental cows (1.44 nmol/1), and bPAG measured in milk (whole) was lower for Charolais than Simmental cows (0.26 vs 0.47 nmol (s.e.d 0.06) p<0.05) but not for Aberdeen Angus (0.38 nmol/1) and Welsh Black cows (0.37 nmol/1). Total body elimination of bPAG in urine, saliva and milk accounted only for 5.28 % of the total plasma bPAG. Total body elimination of bPAG in urine, saliva and milk accounted for only 5.28 % of the total plasma bPAG. The remaining 94.72 % of bPAG may have been metabolished and was undetectable by the current RIA technique. A theoretical assessment for potential use of bPAG RIA for pregnancy diagnosis using urine, saliva and milk showed that the minimum detection limits of measuring bPAG in these fluids were reached and / or exceeded by Day 200 of gestation, or later. Consequently, assay of bPAG in these fluids for early pregnancy diagnosis would not be appropriate unless the sensitivity of the assays is improved considerably, or prior assay sample extraction/concentration is carried out.