A study of groundwater contamination and bioremediation treatment using natural soil and vegetation
This thesis is concerned with the following studies : 1- Ammonium analysis in soil and water including the determination of low levels of ammonium (<0.1 mg N/1) in groundwater and the colorimetric analysis of highly coloured groundwater samples. 2- An investigation of groundwater quality and soils at a contaminated industrial site. 3- Bioremediation treatment of the ammonium and nitrate contaminated groundwater using natural soil and vegetation and using soil incubation and pot experiments. These findings of a pot experiment suggest the possibility of applying the bioremediation treatment of the ammonium and nitrate contaminated water in the field. A field study should be undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of this bioremediation treatment. This field study would require a suitable uniform area to lay out the plots, preferably close to the source of water to be used. In addition, it is necessary to carry out a hydrological survey to determine the following aspects: 1-The size of groundwater reservoir. 2-The rate of removal of the water. 3-The time scale of the water application. The climatic conditions such as rainfall, potential evapotranspiration and temperature should be taken into consideration when carrying out the bioremediation treatment in the field as these climatic conditions affect the water requirements and the growth of grass. There are three options to apply the contaminated groundwater as follows : 1-To apply the contaminated groundwater at low or high volume depending on its level of nitrogen. 2-To blend well water with high level of nitrogen with well water with low level of nitrogen to achieve a realistic irrigation rate at a suitable nitrogen level. 3-To overirrigate in expectation that ammonium would be retained in the soil. The ryegrass used in this bioremediation treatment can be disposed of by incineration and landfilling the ash or landfilling the grass.