Towards effective school management : a study of secondary schools in Tanzania.
This studyi s abouts econdarsyc hooml anagemeinnt TanzanianG overnmenste condarsyc hools.I t
seeksto investigateth e perceptionos f teachersa ndh eadteachearsb outt he managemenptr actices
that are being used in schools and to identify strategies and practices which appear to be effective.
Ihe main assurnption of the study is that there are Government secondary schools which are wen
managed and others which are less well managed. Ile study aimed to identify what the well
managed schools do in contrast to the less well managed schools.
All Governmenste condarsyc hoolsin Dar-Es-Salaaman d the Coastr egionw ere sampledfo r the
study. Questionnaireasn di nterviewsw eret he main datag atheringm ethods.Q uestionnairewse re
issuedt o ten teachersa nd the headi n eacho f the 16 schools. The researchear dministeretdh e
questionnairesp ersonally in all schoolst o minimise the inconvenienceo f getting the questionnaires
back. Interviews were conducted in eight selected schools comprismg four well managed and four
less well managed schools. The interviews were conducted as a follow up and to complement the
questionnaires. Four teachers and the head of school were interviewed in each school. The
researcher also interviewed the Inspector of schools and the Director for Secondary Education in
the Ministry of Education. Some ethnographic data was also collected in all the schools.
Data gatheredt hrough questionnairews ere codedf or analysisb y the computer. The Social
Packagefo r the Social Sciences(S PSS)w as usedt o analyset he data. For the interviewd ata,
contenat nalysisw asd one. Dataf rom two schoolso, ne,w ell manageda ndo ne,l essw ell managed
werew rittenu p as cases tudiesfo r the dissertation.
The resultss howedth at therew ere significantd ifferencesb etweenth e managemenptr acticesi n
City and Coastals econdarsyc hools,B oardinga nd Day secondarys choolsa nd Co-educatioann d
Singles exs econdarsyc hools.
The followinga ppearetdo bet he barrierst o the executiono f goodm anagemepnrt acticesf:i nancial
andr esourcec onstraintsu; seo f bureaucratipc racticesl,a ck of commitmenot f somes taff to thej ob
andl ack of managmncntrta iningf or headso f schools.
Ther ecommendatioanrsis ingf rom the studyw eret hatt heres houldb e: a shift from bureaucratitco
a more democratic and participative form of management and leadership in schools; clear
aPPointmentc riteria for headteachersa; system for positive discrimination for the distribution of
resourcesin schools;t he productiono f a handbookf or teacherso n effective management;
manag=entt wning for wouldb e headteachearsn dt hosea lreadyi n thej ob and for teachersa nd
headteachetros be heldm orea ccountablfeo r the failuresi n schools.T heser econunendatiownse re
for the attentiono f the Ministry of Educationf,o r headteachearsn dt eachers