The foreign policy of the Turkish nationalists, 1919 to 1923.
The Turkish Nationalist Movement was the direct result of
the first World War and the secret agreements contracted by
the Entente Powers for the partition of Turkish homelands. The
war aims of the Powers, the Armistice of Mudros, which they
imposed upon a defeated ottoman Empire, their occupation of
Turkish territories, their despatch of Greek troops to invade
Izmir, and their belated imposition upon Turkey of a treaty of
revenge, all served an the moving force ramifying the Nationalist
By April, 1920, the Nationalists established a de facto
government in Ankara, and entered into diplomatic and other
relations with foreign countries. They devised appropriate
policies towards individual states in the East and in the
West, incorporated in two general policies, the Eastern and
the Western, both of which were directed towards obtaining
their minimum desiderata as embodied in the National Pact.
Moreover, they strove to obtain recognition, moral and
material support within the framework of defensive and
offensive alliances and treaties of amity, and to carry out
open and secret activities and intrigues for the attainment
of their main object.
They skilfully utilised both policies and the existing
political and military circumstances in signing treaties of
amity and fraternity with a number of Eastern countries,
headed by Soviet Russia, and with Italy and France in the
West, both of which they managed to detach from Britain and
Greece, their most dangerous enemies. They jeopardised the
very existence of the Entente, particularly after Greece had
fallen out of favour with the Allies, and after the Kemalists
had succeeded in signing the Ankara Accord with the French.
They were so successful in their policy of isolating
Greece that, when they launched their general offensive in
August, 1922, no Power endeavoured to come to the assistance
of the Greeks, who were finally expelled from Turkey by force
of arms. The resulting Treaty of Lausanne secured to Nationalist
Turkey all the essentials of the National Pact.