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Title: The foreign policy of the Turkish nationalists, 1919 to 1923.
Author: Ramadan, Salahi.
Awarding Body: Birkbeck (University of London)
Current Institution: Birkbeck (University of London)
Date of Award: 1971
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The Turkish Nationalist Movement was the direct result of the first World War and the secret agreements contracted by the Entente Powers for the partition of Turkish homelands. The war aims of the Powers, the Armistice of Mudros, which they imposed upon a defeated ottoman Empire, their occupation of Turkish territories, their despatch of Greek troops to invade Izmir, and their belated imposition upon Turkey of a treaty of revenge, all served an the moving force ramifying the Nationalist Movement. By April, 1920, the Nationalists established a de facto government in Ankara, and entered into diplomatic and other relations with foreign countries. They devised appropriate policies towards individual states in the East and in the West, incorporated in two general policies, the Eastern and the Western, both of which were directed towards obtaining their minimum desiderata as embodied in the National Pact. Moreover, they strove to obtain recognition, moral and material support within the framework of defensive and offensive alliances and treaties of amity, and to carry out open and secret activities and intrigues for the attainment of their main object. They skilfully utilised both policies and the existing political and military circumstances in signing treaties of amity and fraternity with a number of Eastern countries, headed by Soviet Russia, and with Italy and France in the West, both of which they managed to detach from Britain and Greece, their most dangerous enemies. They jeopardised the very existence of the Entente, particularly after Greece had fallen out of favour with the Allies, and after the Kemalists had succeeded in signing the Ankara Accord with the French. They were so successful in their policy of isolating Greece that, when they launched their general offensive in August, 1922, no Power endeavoured to come to the assistance of the Greeks, who were finally expelled from Turkey by force of arms. The resulting Treaty of Lausanne secured to Nationalist Turkey all the essentials of the National Pact.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available