Rudyard Kipling's Just So Stories translated into Portuguese : contexts and text
The aim of this thesis is twofold: to present a translation into Portuguese of Just So Stories by Rudyard Kipling informed by a consideration of textual, contextual and extratextual parameters; and to treat some key issues In Translation Theory and practice which have arisen out of the process of translating the text. The thesis is divided into two parts: Part One, the Introduction; and Part Two, the Translation. In Chapter One of Part One, the evolution of the reception of Kipling's oeuvre is summarised. His work became controversial, with a discrepancy between critical reservation and public acclaim. Against this background, the writings intended primarily for children form an exception. Critical response to this category, although restricted, has generally supported the favourable view of the public. Among the works most highly praised has been Just So Stories. This favourable, although scarce, attention suggests that a detailed critical examination of the text is essential to a full understanding of Kipling's work. Consequently, Just So Stories is considered in terms of its origins, critical reception, style, literary affiliations and possible sources. General points are illustrated by case studies drawn from the text. In Chapter Two, the complex factors which determine what works are translated are summarised. In contemporary Portugal, children's literature publishing is flourishing, and Kipling is represented almost exclusively as a children's author. So, a balanced view of his work is inaccessible to the Portuguese reader. Even within the field of children'S literature, Kipling is not faithfully represented. The only published translation of Just So Stories into Portuguese is an unacknowledged adaptation of a French translation, itself an incomplete version of the original English text. This Portuguese version raises wide issues about the function and role of the translator, which are discussed in detail, with reference to the work of leading theorists of translation theory. In Chapter Three, in order to deal with the factors relevant to the translation of Just So Stories, a distinction is drawn between problems resulting from culture-specific differences and problems resulting from differences in the structures of the two languages. The problems are identified and analysed, and specific case studies drawn from the translation are adduced in illustration of the solutions adopted. As a result of the task of translating Just So Stories and of the study of Translation Theory texts, a view of translation as an approximation and of the translator as a visible interpreter has been reached. Part Two of this thesis consists of the translation of the twelve stories published in 1902, and of the two extra stories published later, 'The Tabu Tale' and 'Ham and the Porcupine'. Notes are kept to a minimum and are only intended to supplement the discussion of translation problems carried out in Chapter Three.