Generation of squeezed light in semiconductors
We present experimental studies based on all three methods by which the generation of squeezed light in semiconductors has thus far been demonstrated experimentally: Fourwave mixing, multi-photon absorption and direct generation at the source. Four-wave mixing was used to generate femtosecond-pulsed quadrature squeezed light by cross-phase modulation in single-crystal hexagonal CdSe at wavelengths between 1.42 and 1.55 μm. We measured 0.4 dB squeezing (1.1 dB is inferred at the crystal) using 100 fs pulses. The wavelength and the intensity dependence, as well as variations in the local oscillator configuration were investigated. At higher intensities squeezing was shown to deteriorate owing to competing nonlinear processes. We also characterised the nonlinear optical properties of CdSe in this wavelengths range using an interferometric autocorrelator. In addition, we studied the feasibility of extending this technique to AlGaAs waveguides. The key problems are addressed and solutions are proposed. In a different experiment we used an AlGaAs waveguide to demonstrate for the first time photon-number squeezing by multi-photon absorption. By tuning the pump energy through the half bandgap energy we could effectively select two- or three-photon absorption as the dominant mechanism. Squeezing by these two mechanisms could be clearly distinguished and was found to be in good agreement with longstanding theoretical predictions. We also established the generality of the effect, by demonstrating the same mechanism in organic semiconductors, where it led to the first ever observation of squeezed light in an organic material. Finally, we present our measurements of photon-number squeezing in high-efficiency double heterojunction AlGaAs light-emitting diodes. We measured squeezing of up to 2.0 dB. In addition, we observed quantum noise correlations when several of these devices were connected in series.