The regeneration of peripheral council estates : a case study in Sunderland
This research considers the regeneration of peripheral estates within the context of shifts and trends in government policy, and suggests that three principal approaches to policy development, the delivery of services and to urban governance can be identified. These approaches are - the Welfare Approach of the post-war period, the Entrepreneurial or Privatism Approach of the later 1970s and 1980s, and the Community Based or Communitarian Approach, which although a theme in practice and thought, has not been developed on a systematic basis. The principal method of investigation is a case study of Sunderland, which follows a literature review. Sunderland is a city in the North of England with a population of just under 300,000 and is typical in having had a local economy dependent on a cluster of traditional industries and in having built a large number of peripheral estates. The case study consists of three estate based investigations using a series of interviews with field work professionals, community activists and residents supported by the reading of appropriate documents. The estate based studies are embedded into a city wide framework established by reading policy documents and by a series of interviews with decision makers. The case study enabled a specific focus to be placed on peripheral estates and enabled the problems on the estates to the linked with policy responses at the regional, local authority wide and local scales. The literature review and the case study were reinforced by visits to current regeneration projects. The evidence from these sources is used to establish a framework for regeneration which it is suggested should include all estates where there is evidence of widespread multiple deprivation and social exclusion rather than only the "worst" or "stigmatised" estates as at present. Mainstream service provision should be supplemented by community based projects which should be planned and delivered by community regeneration organisations and estate based partnerships. Projects should form part of a holistic small area approach to regeneration.