Narrative through cartoon : a study in visual drafting
This study is designed to explore the use of visual images In combination with the teaching of narrative In the classroom. The theoretical background establishes the need for different modes of thinking to create the optimum conditions for the development of metacognition. Ideas concerning the relation of children's drawing to their overall cognitive growth are drawn from Bruner, Vygotsky, Lambert-Brittain and Freeman. More recent research by Cross and Balchin and Coleman into the role of graphicacy in conceptualising and the development of logico-spatial thinking suggests that without a proper visual education children could lack effective visual-verbal interactive possibilities for promoting certain verbal modes of thought. Metaphor, given its visual component, is seen as key to language development. The exploration of creative metaphor and "abstractive seeing" lead to the work of Paivio and Osgood which demonstrated how dual coding allows the abstract to be concretized by metaphorically linked 'mediators' - images. Gombrich's distinction between knowing and seeing was precursor to a discussion of recent theories of perception. Bruce and Green concluded that perceptual learning is an increase in specificity - features of which can be seen in many of the children's texts. The gathering of data followed a cyclical, action research pattern, having three main stages and going cross-phase with an age range of 10-13 years. The first two samples were from Year Eight cartoons and writing. The second stage was a more general exploration of Year Sb work while the third used samples from a top band Year Eight English group. This comprised a more structured experiment involving selection of candidates and further development of the analytic method with two types of sam ple taken; one selected and one random. The main concern was to examine transference of detail and the development of metacommunicative ideas through the visual-verbal interaction.