Synthesis and molecular properties of zwitterionic adducts of TCNQ and other related compounds
This thesis is concerned with the synthesis and characterisation of novel TCNQ (7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane), TMTCNQ (2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) and TCNQF4 (2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) based zwitterionic D-1t-A materials (where D and A are electron donors and acceptors respectively) of which the methylated Z-~-(N-methyl-4-quinolinium)-a-cyano-4( 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro)styryldicyanomethanide [CH3(4)Q3CNQF4] is a typical example. Synthetic modification of the donor moiety was also undertaken, resulting in a diverse range of pyridinium, quinolinium and benzothiazolium-based materials, which may have use in nonlinear optical research. For the quinolinium system an extensive range of both 2- and 4-substituted analogues have been prepared and their properties compared and contrasted. The solvatochromic behaviour of these zwitterions was investigated in detail by dissolution in a range of organic solvents and measurement of their longest wavelength charge-transfer absorption bands using UV/Visible spectroscopy, which revealed that the substituents have a marked effect upon their solvatochromic properties. Most of the adducts studied display highly negative solvatochromism as the solvent polarity increases, in which their absorption maxima are linearly related with the normalised ENT values for the Reichardt dye. However the fluorinated quinolinium and pyridinium derivatives exhibit an unusual aggregation-induced reverse solvatochromism effect. The negative halochromic behaviour of selected zwitterions has also been investigated, with a hypsochromic shift of the longest wavelength CT absorption band being observed upon addition of electrolytes. Increased polarisation within the fluorinated R(4)Q3CNQF4 and R(2)Q3CNQF4 adducts has been indicated by solution state dipole moment measurements indicating greater nonlinear optical potential. However this increased polarisation has also been shown to be a major cause of the limited stability of these materials to photo-oxidation. The behaviour of the R(4)Q3CNQF4 and R(2)Q3CNQF4 zwitterions on the subphase and their resultant Langmuir-Blodgett film forming ability was also studied. However unlike the TCNQ-based materials the fluorinated adducts have been shown to be poor LB film forming materials.