The reform of the law and administration of charities in the nineteenth century.
This thesis deals with the manner in which the work
of charity during the nineteenth century was altered and
reformed, and it attempts to indicate the degree in which
various forces accomplished those alterations.
The Introduction indicates the limitations which
have been imposed upon the scope of this work, particularly
with regard to case-law concerning the definition of
The first four chapters consider the formation and
work of the Brougham Inquiry 1819-1837, with particular
reference to the background and nature of the Inquiry
(Chapter I), the manner in which the Inquiry discharged
its functions and the problem of tracing charities
(Chapter II). Chapte~ III considers the nature of the
charitable gifts which the Inquiry discovered. The
final chapter on the Inquiry deals first with the
information to be gleaned from the trust deeds concerning
the types of settlor, the form in which trusts were
constructed and the influence of these factors on the
misuse of charity property. Secondly, it investigates
the categories of abuse and misuse of charities found by
the Inquiry and other cases of trust fund failure.
Chapters V - VIII illustrate the legislative
reforms,-in particular the foundation of the Charity
Commission, and investigate the way in which the reports
of the Charity Commissioners influenced reform. These
chapters also seek to show the degree of success
achieved by the Commissioners in the work of rectifying
the administration of charities.
Chapter IX follows the development of organised
charity in its attack upon poverty and Chapter X
considers, in outline only, the cy-pres doctrine in the
courts. Legal opinions on reform during the period
are summarized in the final chapter.
The first appendix concerns the Meer Hospital
foundation deed and the remaining four appendices are
the statutes setting up the Brougham Inquiry and the