Vocational training and labour market recruitment in Morocco : towards a segmented approach
In the 1980's a dramatic increase in graduate and school leaver unemployment in Morocco, raised the question of the relevance of education. Education was often blamed by policy-makers and employers for graduate unemployment and for the mismatch between supply and demand observed in the labour market. In this context, the state launched a reform of vocational training aimed at developing the vocational and practical training supposedly needed by the private sector and the economy. But the reform has failed to meet its objectives. Why ? This general problem is explored through three broad research questions: 1. To what extent does vocational training policy address 1-ne problem of youth unemployment in Morocco? 2. What are the socio-economic factors which affect and determine employment/unemployment of vocationally trained graduates in Morocco? 3. To what extent does evidence from the Moroccan labour market confirm or modify a segmented approach to vocational training and labour market recruitment? The field work for this research consisted mainly of an extensive documentary search on the educational and vocational training systems and the Moroccan labour market, and two case studies using primary data on training systems and recruitment in two contrasting segments of the labour market. These were agricultural schools and employment in large-scale private sector farming and a training centre for educational planners and school advisors and civil service employment. Chapter 1 presents the problem and a literature review of the relationship between education and work. Chapter 2 proposes a segmented framework to the Moroccan Labour market. At this stage of building knowledge on the Moroccan labour market, the segmented framework suggested in this thesis appeared relevant to the employment of vocationally trained graduates. Chapter 2 also presents the rationale and working propositions for the research. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the educational and vocational training systems, and the labour market and employment in Morocco respectively. Chapter 5 presents the method and techniques used in the field work. Chapters 6 and 7 present case studies of graduates from agricultural schools and the agricultural segment of employment: and educational planners and school advisors and their related employment. Chapter 8 supplements the two case studies with a survey of recruitment agencies and newspaper announcements. Chapter 9 synthesises the findings of the research, and draws some theoretical implications. Overall the thesis suggests that job prospects are limited and that an adequate understanding of relations between education, training and the labour market requires an appreciation of the context within which those relations occur. Three aspects of that context are highlighted: (i) general economic trends affecting job creation; (ii) attitude of employers; (iii) variations between segments of employment in (i) and (ii).