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Title: Emulsion-formulation of microbial herbicides.
Author: Potyka, Ingrid.
ISNI:       0000 0001 3497 2754
Awarding Body: University of Bristol
Current Institution: University of Bristol
Date of Award: 1995
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Development of microbial herbicides is constrained by unreliability in the field where conditions are often sub-optimal for infection. Crucially, sufficient moisture, often dew, is required to establish infection. Two model systems, Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. ) Grove on Chenopodium album L. and Mycocentrospora acerina (Hartig) Deighton on Viola arvensis Murr., have been investigated and formulation requirements for each system identified, principally to reduce the dew period necessary for infection. Effects of adjuvants (surfactants, stickers and humectants) on spore germination and appressorium formation were investigated in vitro. Few were toxic and then, principally, at high concentration. The surfactants Tween 40,60 and 80 were compatible with both pathogens. Similarly, the stickers acacia, ghatti, guar, karaya, locust bean and xanthan gums and low viscosity alginic acid were all non-toxic as was the humectant glycerol. Each pathogen reacted differently to the adjuvants and any potential microbial herbicide will need individual matching of adjuvants to give an effective formulation. A working formulation (rapeseed oil-in-water (1: 10 v/v) emulsion using 0.1 % v/v Tween 40 as the emulsifier) was found to reduce the dew period requirement of M. acerina from 36 to 18 hours. The formulation protected spores from desiccation for 24 hours after application, or for 16 hours following a sub-optimum dew period occurring immediately after application. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the applied spores, and the developing mycelium, were immersed in the oil deposit. Transmission electron microscopy of sections through formulation deposits on the leaf revealed that some inversion of the emulsion, to form a water-inoil deposit, had occurred, suggesting a mechanism of protection against desiccation. The oil phase infiltrated the cortical intercellular spaces only when the leaf was infected. This intercellular oil contained more water than that on the leaf surface. Emulsion-formulation applied to run-off with an 'air brush', consistently gave significantly better weed control under sub-optimal dew conditions than a formulation of surfactant only. When applied with a conventional hydraulic nozzle at 400 1 ha" the emulsion was only occasionally superior to the surfactant alone. Such interactions require further in-depth investigation. The importance of correct inoculum placement for maximum effectiveness, independent of formulation type, was highlighted. Unless all meristems are killed, survivors quickly grow, despite the death of neighbouring leaves and petioles, and the weed suffers merely a growth check. Formulation as emulsion improved diseasee stablishmenta nd diseasee xpressioni n the target weedo nly in somec ircumstancesF. urther researchin to spraya pplicationm ethodsa ndt heir interactions with formulation, host and environment is clearly necessary
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Mycoherbicides; Fungi; Weeds; Biological control Agronomy Plant diseases Horticulture Ecology Microbiology