Beach development, sediment budget and coastal erosion at Holderness
Complex relationships exist among offshore conditions, beach sediment transport and morphology, and till cliff erosion. Modelled and measured sediment transport rates established for the Holderness coast are similar to those on comparable coasts elsewhere. The direction of sediment drift depends on wave approach, and determining sediment transport rates, cliff composition and cliff retreat rates allows a sediment budget to be prepared. The beach response predicted by the sediment budget was confirmed by field observations, with budget surpluses and deficits coinciding with full and depleted beach profiles respectively. The area of deficit in the north of the study area was associated with the reduced sheltering effect of Flamborough Head on sediment drift. At most profiles, especially those with a sediment deficit, high energy waves may remove the sand veneer completely, leaving the till platform exposed. These bare till patches which elsewhere have been called ords and have been regarded as unique, were thought, in the present study,to represent a normal beach response to limited sediment supply and prevailing offshore conditions. Beach evolution was also modelled formally, the range of beach profiles exhibited on the Holderness coast being grouped into a number of distinct types, and evolution among them described and predicted by a first-order Markov model. This can be refined to provide different models for "winter" and "summer". Different modal types occur at different locations, and certain types of transitions between classes can be associated with particular ranges of wave conditions. Beach Development, Sediment Budget and Coastal Erosion at Holderness Susan J. Mason. Till cliff retreat at Holderness is extremely variable, both spatially and temporally, being influenced by beach level, energy conditions, cliff moisture content and the actions of man. The sediment transport rates, cliff retreat data, sediment budget and beach behaviour model are all essential elements of a research programme currently being undertaken to find a cheap method of protecting this coast.