High-resolution NMR studies of solid halogenated organic compounds
This thesis is a study of solid halogenated organic compounds by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR) in an attempt to extract previously inaccessible information. The first part of the thesis is concerned with three fluorinated steroids, studied by observing (^1)H, (^13)C and (^19)F nuclei. A number of experimental techniques are employed to verify solution-state and solid-state spectral assignments, and spectral anomalies are discussed. Both proton-coupled and proton-decoupled (^19)F solid-state spectra, recorded using specially designed spectrometer hardware, are presented. The huge gain in resolution afforded by the implementation of proton decoupling allows static and MAS spectra to yield previously inaccessible information pertaining to various NMR parameters of the fluorine nuclei. Advantages of (^1)H→(^19)F cross-polarisation experiments over single-pulse experiments are explained and rotational resonance, dipolar dephasing, T(_1), measurement and spin-exchange experiments are presented from which information regarding phenomena such as spin diffusion and polymorphism is gleaned. The second part of the thesis focusses on the topic of residual dipolar coupling, the transfer of quadrupolar effects to spin-1/2 nuclei via dipolar coupling and/or anisotropy m indhect coupling. Unexpected, field-dependent, multiplicities for signals in spectra of spin-1/2 nuclei are observed, which can be used to evaluate certain fundamental NMR parameters including the quadrupolar coupling constant and, m favourable cases, anisotropy in indirect coupling. The phenomenon is comprehensively studied for the (^13)C, (^35,37)Cl and (^13)C, (^79,81)Br spin-pairs in a range of solid halogenated compounds. Coupling to more than one halogen nucleus and long- range (non-bonded) coupling are considered. First-order perturbation, inverse first- order and "exact" theories, that allow the multiplet line positions to be predicted, are introduced and their results are subsequently compared to the experimentally observed the positions. Rapid molecular motion is shown to negate the effects of residual dipolar coupling and the phenomenon is analysed with the aid of NQR measurements.