Theories of translation and their applications to the teaching of English/Arabic-Arabic/English translating
The vital role which English continues to play in international communications and the growing impact of the Arab Nation on world affairs have created a demand for English-Arabic/Arabic-English translators and interpreters. Consequently, this has prompted educational authorities in Arab Countries to set up translation and interpreting courses. For the same purposes, translation and interpreting courses have been set up in Europe and the U.S.A. the aim of which is to provide the market with translators able to deal with a variety of fields and interpreters able to operate at international conferences and international business negotiations. The discipline of TT is still in its infancy. It is faced with practical and theoretical difficulties. The practicality of translation theory in TT has yet to be ascertained and its usefulness in providing insights towards solving translation problems has yet to be fully investigated. In the Arab World, the problem of designing adequate translation courses remains. There have been a few attempts at designing undergraduate translation syllabuses at Arab universities, the prevailing characteristic of which is subjectivity. At the postgraduate level, the few courses available are of the `do-it-yourself' type. What is lacking is a translation course with a clear linguistic approach that combines translation theory and practice. This course must train students efficiently and must arm them with a good array of translation techniques and problem-solving strategies, as we badly need a systematisation of TT at our universities. Reiss's (1978) model of TT and Wilss's approach (1977) to curricular planning of translation courses are inspiring. Text linguistically-oriented translation syllabuses are also interesting, as they present an objective, scientific approach to TT.