Mechanisms of ion channel activation in primary cultured and clonal cell lines
The effects of hypotonic shock upon membrane Cl- permeability of ROS 17/2.8 osteoblast-like cells was investigated using the patch-clamp technique. Hypotonic shock produced cell swelling that was accompanied by large amplitude, outwardly rectifying, currents that were active across the entire physiological range of membrane potentials (-80 to +100 mV). At strong depolarisations (> +50 mV) the currents exhibited time-dependent inactivation that followed a monoexponential time course. The currents were anion selective and exhibited a selectivity sequence of SCN- > 1- > Br- > Cl- > F- > gluconate-. Current activation was unaffected by inhibitors of protein kinase (A (H-89) and tyrosine kinase (tyrphostin A25), and could not be mimicked by elevation of intracellular Ca2+ or activation of protein kinase C. Similarly, disruption of actin filaments by dihydrocytochalsin B, or generation of membrane tension by dipyridamole failed to elicit significant increases in cell chloride permeability. The mechanism of current activation is as yet undetermined. The currents were effectively inhibited by the chloride channel inhibitors NPPB and DIDS but resistant to DPC. A Cl- conductance with similar characteristics was found to be present in mouse primary cultured calvarial osteoblasts. The volume-sensitive Cl- current in ROS 17/2.8 cells was inhibited by arachidonic acid in two distinct phases. A rapid block that developed within 10 s, preceding a slower developing inhibitory phase that occurred approximately 90 s after onset of arachidonate superfusion. Arachidonic acid also induced kinetic modifications of the current.