Motion compensated video coding
The result of many years of international co-operation in video coding has been the development of algorithms that remove interframe redundancy, such that only changes in the image that occur over a given time are encoded for transmission to the recipient. The primary process used here is the derivation of pixel differences, encoded in a method referred to as Differential Pulse-Coded Modulation (DPCM)and this has provided the basis of contemporary research into low-bit rate hybrid codec schemes. There are, however, instances when the DPCM technique cannot successfully code a segment of the image sequence because motion is a major cause of interframe differences. Motion Compensation (MC) can be used to improve the efficiency of the predictive coding algorithm. This thesis examines current thinking in the area of motion-compensated video compression and contrasts the application of differing algorithms to the general requirements of interframe coding. A novel technique is proposed, where the constituent features in an image are segmented, classified and their motion tracked by a local search algorithm. Although originally intended to complement the DPCM method in a predictive hybrid codec, it will be demonstrated that the evaluation of feature displacement can, in its own right, form the basis of a low bitrate video codec of low complexity. After an extensive discussion of the issues involved, a description of laboratory simulations shows how the postulated technique is applied to standard test sequences. Measurements of image quality and the efficiency of compression are made and compared with a contemporary standard method of low bitrate video coding.