The interaction of planning policies and construction technologies in Iran with reference to China & Japan
This thesis investigates the relationship between planning and the construction industry. It puts forward the concept of Planning Construction Interactions (Pl.C.I) and sets out to validate this concept by the examination of three hypotheses. The production of the built environment is a complex process involving the activities of different agents. The physical evidence of the development process is found in the form of hospitals, houses, roads and physical and social infrastructure. The construction industry is one of the main actors in the development process which plays an important role in the economic development by its contribution to Value Added, Capital Formation, Gross Domestic Product and Employment Generation. The failure of development plans in many developing countries is due to many factors. There is evidence from these countries of plans having been devised on the basis of inappropriate policy agendas and technology. The source of inappropriacy is often foreign technology and expertise. In order to identify the constraints to development, the planning construction processes are examined in three countries: Iran, China and Japan. The main part of the thesis is devoted to Iran. In this context a detailed analysis of economic development and physical planning since the end of the Second World War is presented. As a result of this investigation a number of factors are identified which have a direct impact on the construction industry. It is also argued that development policies have a direct impact on the choice of construction technology and materials. Appropriate technology is commonly thought to offer a panacea. The result of a case study of the process of technology transfer is presented. The Iranian case identifies the reasons for failure of appropriate technology whilst the examination of the Chinese development demonstrates the importance of appropriate technology in national development since the 1949 revolution. A part of the thesis is devoted to the study of the planning and construction processes in Japan. This is focused on the role of the construction industry in the economic development of that country and how it is affected by government actions. Japan offers an interesting mechanism of planning and implementation processes. This developed from the introduction of a series of land use planning policies allowing for the involvement of the private construction sector in the financing and provision of infrastructure in urban areas. A series of recommendations are made in the context of post war Iran. A possible framework for the development of the construction industry is put forward which emphasises the use of appropriate technology and building materials. This is seen as part of the integrated development planning approach.