Diffraction modelling of mobile radio wave propagation in built-up areas
This thesis examines theoretical methods of modelling radio wave propagation in built-up areas, with particular application to mobile radio systems Theoretical approaches allow precise quantitative description of the environment in terms of parameters such as mean building heights and densities, in contrast to the ambiguous nature of more conventional empirical models. The models are constructed using both scalar and vector field analysis techniques. The vector analysis is accomplished using the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction to describe the detailed effects of building shape and positioning, particularly for short-range situations. Over longer ranges propagation can often be described in terms of multiple edge diffraction over building rooftops using a scalar field representation. This mechanism accounts well for measured field strength variations, but is time consuming to calculate accurately using standard methods. A rapid algorithm for calculating scalar diffraction over multiple building edges with arbitrary positioning is constructed. This model can be used for deterministic prediction of sector median field strengths including slow fading variations when appropriate building data exists. It is also applicable to terrain diffraction problems. For the case when only average building parameters are available a closed form solution to the problem of multiple diffraction over buildings of equal heights and spacings is derived. The solution is applicable to any antenna heights and so provides a rapid and efficient way to predict gross propagation characteristics. Both models are tested against measurements made in the UHF band and are found to yield good prediction accuracy.