Middle Miocene ostracoda from northern Iraq
The Ostracoda from nine sections of the Lower Fars Formation, Northern Iraq, Tel-Hajer well-1, Sheikh Ibrahim locality, Dohuk locality, Sheikhan locality, Bashiqa locality, Kirkuk well-208, Bai-Hassan well-33, Hamrin well-2 and the Naft Khana well-34, have been studied in detail.One hundred and nine Ostracod species/subspecies belonging to 50 genera/subgenera are described, of which one genus, one subgenus and 70 species are new. Five species are assigned to species previously described from western India. Five species are compared with other species from W. India, Iran, Turkey and France. Three species are regarded as having affinities with new species described in this thesis and 26 species are left under open nomenclature mainly because of lack of material or the impossibility of observing the internal details.Biostratigraphically, the Lower Fars Formation in the Sinjar area is divided into three Assemblage Zones, these zones are applicable only to N. Iraq, but make a starting point for future work in the area. In the Kirkuk area, the saliferous beds proved completely barren, but the upper Red, Seepage and Transition beds yield Ostracods although the assemblages recognised are at present only regarded as tentative, because the samples are ditch cuttings.Palaeoecology is discussed in terms of oxygenation, alaeoclimate, salinity and the trends in the depositional environment of the Lower Fars Formation.The affinities of the present genera and species are discussed from a palaeogeographical view point in relation to the adjacent and related regions. Three Miocene Ostracod provinces are proposed, namely a western India province, a Zagros shelf province and a southeast Turkey province.