A study of cashew nut shell liquid purification and the synthesis of nonionic surfactants from the component phenols
The major phenolic lipids from natural and technical Cashew Nut-Shell Liquids were isolated by various techniques including precipitation, chemical purification, distillation, phase separation and chromatography. Cardanol, 3-pentadecyl phenol and cardol were polyethoxylated under base catalysed conditions and the products were characterised by both nmr and HPLC. Their surfactant properties were then analysed by surface tension measurements and their rates and extent of biodegradation were evaluated by means of a modified OECD screening test. The synthesis of the biosyntetic intermediate 2,4-dihydroxy-6-pentadecyl benzoic acid, by means of a Horner-Emmons modification to the Wittig reaction, is also reported. Some studies with cavitands are also reported, including the synthesis of some novel macrocycles and some sugar transport studies.