Seaports and development in the Persian Gulf
The practical and theoretical relationship between transport and development is examined In relation to the evolution and operation of maritime transport systems which focus on the major seaports of the Persian Gulf. Concentrating on the ports of Kuwait, Bahrain and Dubai, and using a 'systems' methodology, the negative, as well as positive issues which hove emanated from the post-war era of unparalleled economic development and expansion are extracted for analysis. Confirmation of the hypothesis that since the late nineteenth century the intrusion of modem systems of transport Into Gulf society has dismembered, but not destroyed, a farmer pattern of life based on trading in dhows, leads to the conclusion that a spatial 'dualism' exists in the Gulf, differentiated by the extent to which modern technology has percolated traditional social and economic life. In practical terms, the research focuses on three areas: it measures the spatial extent of the existing dhow trading network; it comments on the inter-relationship between port expansion projects and the general pattern of economic development within the Gulf ; and It highlights problems relating to the overtonnaging of shipping services and port congestion in the Gulf. Theoretically, the relationship between seaports and development is assessed in the context of the significance of behavioural aspects of decision-making In port development and operation. Secondly, the social impact of the modernisation of transport services, measured in terms of the concentration of Investment at the major points of linkage with the world economy - the port cities - Is perceived as exacerbating spatially unbalanced growth to the detriment of groups living in peripheral towns and villages.