Sensorless vector control of surface mounted permanent magnet machines without restriction of zero frequency
Permanent magnet motors have a series of characteristics that make them attractive for the use in industrial drives: low maintenance, high dynamics, small size and mass to power ratio. In particular its higher efficiency means that permanent magnet synchronous motors may be used instead of electro-magnetically exited motors (such induction machines or commutator DC motors) in applications where the energy savings compensate the higher initial cost. Nevertheless, the need for a shaft mounted position measurement to perform the orientation of the control of the synchronous machine is of concern, because it increases the total drive cost and reduces reliability. In this work the sensorless vector control of a surface mounted permanent magnet machine is presented. The emphasis is in the control at low and zero speed, including position control, by means of saturation saliency tracking. Two different strategies for rotor position detection used in salient synchronous machines and in induction machines are analysed. These are hf voltage injection in the stationary, stator, reference frame of the machine (α-ß injection) and hf voltage injection on the estimated rotor axis (so called d-axis or pulsating injection). These two methods are optimised for its application to the surface mounted PM machine. The small magnitude of the saliency present difficulties and disturbances are significant. A commissioning based method (SMP) is used for enhanced rotor position estimation by the α-ß rotating injection. The two methods are implemented on a 4 kW experimental rig and the sensorless controlled results are compared and discussed. A hybrid structure combining the saliency tracking method with a flux-observer is also presented and provides sensorless control capability over the whole speed range.