Musical development : testing a model in the audience-listening setting
The purpose of this work has been to investigate if responses made through listening in audience can be mapped according to the Swanwick and Tillman Spiral of Musical Development. The first part of chapter one consists of a review of previous studies in the field of musical abilities, aptitudes, musical development and the assessment of listening in audience. The second part of the chapter tries to outline the Spiral Theory of Musical Development, its theoretical background and assessment criteria. Chapter two attempts to critically discuss the developmental adequacy of the Spiral Theory, by employing five general developmental characteristics named as Temporality, Cumulativity, Directionality, New Mode of Organization, and Increased Capacity for Self-Control. The first part of chapter three discusses in a critical way the terms in which musical development has been conceived as being analogical to Piaget's Theory on Play Development in early childhood. The second part of the chapter attempts to extend Swanwick's analogy by offering a critical analysis of the Spiral phases in relation to assimilation and accommodation processes. Finally, the third part discusses the generalization of the analogical psychological process to the remaining activities of performing and listening in audience. Chapter four outlines the method employed to assess listening in audience responses, which consisted of interviewing a total of hundred and five children in two field studie5 by uSlng two kinds of interview - structured and semi-structured. Chapter five offers the results of the pilot Study carried out in Brazil, as well as offering an evaluation of research procedures. The first part of chapter 6 presents a revised research method employed in the final field work that was carried out in England. The second part of the chapter presents the results and interpretation of the field work. Chapter seven presents the conclusion and some implications for the Spiral Theory, research development and music education.