Conditions of emergence and existence of archaeology in the 19th century : the Royal Archaeological Institute, 1843-1914
Traditional histories of archaeology have left lacunae in understanding of both the discipline and elements within it. Using the Royal Archaeological Institute and its product, the Archaeological Journal, as a pattern site for research the archaeological paradigm is applied to history rather than vice-versa. After a short explanation of method the published membership of the Institute between 1845 and 1942 is analysed in terms of geographical distribution, social composition and occupational interest. In the process the dynamics of a will to discourse are revealed in conjunction with the areas of discourse which were problematic. The text of the Journal (1843-1914) is then analysed on the basis of format, citations, terminology, tropes and objects of discussion in order to identify any 'statements', in the Foucauldian sense, which constitute the objects of discourse. Three major phases emerge. These are characterised at one level by similarities and differences in social and cognitive topography. At another level the conditions of existence and emergence revealed in the study suggest that archaeology itself is a characteristic of the Modem episteme, intimately linked in its successive modes of exploration and interpretation of the past with the Enlightenment project and the nation state.