Roman Phrygia : cities and their coinage
The principal focus of this thesis is the Upper Maeander Valley in Phrygia, which is now part of modern Turkey, and in particular three cities situated in that region, namely Laodicea, Hierapolis and Colossae. The main source used is the coinage produced by these cities with the aim of determining how they viewed their place within the Roman Empire and how they reacted to the realities of Roman rule. Inscriptional, architectural and narrative sources are also used as well as comparative material from other Phrygian and Asian cities. In order to achieve its aim, the thesis is divided into two parts. Part One details the history of Laodicea, Hierapolis and Colossae and explains the coinage system in use within the province of Asia on a regional and a civic level. The final chapter in the first part of the thesis introduces the theme of the interaction between city, region and empire which is developed more fully in Part Two. Part Two discusses the types used on the coins of the cities of the Upper Maeander Valley in the context of the cultural and religious circumstances of Rome and also in reaction to the organisational and political changes affecting the province of Asia as well as the Empire as a whole. The main conclusions of the thesis are that the cities of Laodicea, Hierapolis and Colossae were very aware of Rome and of their own status, as well as that of their province, within the Roman Empire especially in the context of ongoing circumstances and developments within the Empire. As a whole, the thesis clearly highlights the ways in which city, region and empire interacted together and shows that studies of particular regions and their coinage deserve more attention than they have hitherto received.