An investigation of the relationship between temperature, forces and tool wear in turning and drilling
Developing a means of predicting tool life has been and continues to be a focus of much research effort. A common experience in attempting to replicate such efforts is an inability to achieve the levels of agreement between theory and practice of the original researcher or to extrapolate the work to different materials or cutting conditions to those originally used. This thesis sets out to examine why most equations or models when replicated do not give good agreements. One reason which was found is that researchers in wear prediction, their predictions are limited because they generally fail to properly identify the nature of wear mechanisms operative in their study. Also they fail to identify or recognise factors having a significant influence on wear such as bar diameter. Also in this research the similarities and differences between the two processes of single point turning and drilling are examined through a series of tests. A literature survey was undertaken in wear and wear prediction. As a result it was found that there was a paucity in information and research in the work of drilling as compared to the turning operation. This was extended to the lack of standards that exist for the drilling operation. One reason for this scarcity in information on drilling is due to the complexity of the drilling and the tool geometry of the drill. In the comparative drilling and turning tests performed in this work, the same tool material; HSS, and similar work material was used in order to eliminate the differences which may occur due to this factor. Results of the tests were evaluated and compared for the two operations and SEM photographs were taken for the chips produced. Specific test results were obtained for the cutting temperatures and forces of the tool. It was found that cutting temperature is influenced by various factors like tool geometry and cutting speed, and the temperature itself influenced the tool wear and wear mechanisms that act on the tool. It was found and proven that bar diameter influences the temperature, a factor not considered previously.