Greek images of monarchy and their influence on Rome from Alexander to Augustus
This inter-disciplinary thesis traces the influence of Greek images of monarchy on Rome, between 323 B. C. and A. D. 14. The first chapter examines the evidence for Greek perceptions of kings, tyrants, good citizens and ideal rulers in the fourth century B. C. The second chapter considers some developments in political theory during the Hellenistic period, and the practice of Hellenistic kingship. The visual media used for representing Hellenistic monarchy are discussed. The first section of the third chapter reviews the evidence for the points of contact between Romans of the Republican era, and the monarchs, artworks and political thought of the Greek world. A second section analyses the evidence both for the evolution of Roman attitudes towards monarchs and monarchy, over this period of interaction, and changes in Roman political and military leadership. The conventional notion that Romans had been consistently hostile to kings since the fall of Tarquinius Superbus is questioned. The increasing resort to proven individuals (e. g. Pompey) for solving domestic and external crises is documented. The final section of this chapter charts developments in the positive representation of Republican leaders in both rhetoric and art, including favourable portrayals of both Caesar and Octavian. It is suggested that the transformation of Roman thought and practice, under Greek influence, facilitated the successful establishment of a monarchical regime after Actium. The creation of the Augustan dynasty is documented in the final chapter. In addition, ideals of leadership, and Augustan ideas about war, peace and empire, are discussed. A chronological treatment of the contemporary (visual and textual) evidence suggests the heterogeneity of Augustus' principate. New identifications are proposed for certain figures in the 'procession friezes' of the Ara Pacis Augustae.