European Union and justice and home affairs.
This thesis looks at justice and home affairs (JHA) policy-making in the European Union
(EU). JHA refers to those areas which have traditionally been the domain of interior and
justice ministries on the national level and which are now dealt with on the EU level on the
basis of the Treaty on European Union (TEU) and includes areas such as immigration and
asylum, visa policy and police co-operation.
In short, this thesis aims to examine why the governments of the member states chose to
start co-operating on these issues within the EU, what the nature of this co-operation is and
what does it tell us about the EU in general.
The thesis looks firstly at the forms of JHA co-operation prior to the TEU and how this led
to the national governments deciding to give it a Treaty basis within the EU. There is then an
account of how the negotiations on the TEU developed and resulted in JHA being governed
by a set of Treaty provisions quite different to those for other policy areas. This is followed
by two case studies looking in detail at how JHA policy was made after the TEU entered
into force; these deal with visa policy and immigration and asylum.
To help in this, two theoretical approaches, taken from political science studies of European
integration, are used, namely neofunctionalism and liberal intergovernmentalism. These
allow us to identify the extent to which the same processes and factors influence JHA
policy-making as in more traditional areas of Community policy-making, and allow for
conclusions to be drawn on what JHA policy-making can tell us about wider issues of