Schliemann's excavations at Troy, 1870-1873
This study is based on Schliemann's unpublished Troy excavation note books from 1870-73. It attempts to reconstruct his activities, to locate and identify the features he found, and to stratify and date the several thousand objects he recorded. There is some degree of synthesis with the later findings of Dörpfeld and Blegen, and a review, in the light of all these findings, of the chronology of the Bronze Age strata. The study covers all periods from Early Bronze Age to Byzantine, and all classes of material. A reconstructed contour-plan permits a new and closer understanding of Schliemann's progress. Fifty-two areas of work are distinguished in each of which an outline stratigraphy can be reconstructed. Objects are assigned to specific strata, although Schliemann's frequent failure to specify from which trench which objects came can inject varying degrees of uncertainty into the operation. The sequence of fortifications on the North side of the site is greatly clarified, especially for Troy II and VI. Buildings in the citadel interior are more closely dated, and the sequence in Troy II is substantially re-organised to allow for at least twelve building-phases. The earth-movements supposed to have demolished Troy VI are unlikely to have antedated late VIIa. Troy I-II.4 belong to EBII (c.3000-2465); wheelmade plates and one-handled tankards first appear in II.1. Troy II.5-III belong to EBIII (c.2465-2005); two-handled cups and tankards appear in II.5 after an increase of wheelmade plain ware in II.4. Troy III is contemporary with early Middle Helladic. Troy IV-V belong to the Anatolian Middle Bronze Age (c.2005-1712), and VI-VII are purely Late Bronze Age (c.1712-1070). VIh was destroyed c.1270(?), probably around the end of LHIIIBl, and VIIa was destroyed c.1190(?) during LHIIIC.