A typological study of Egyptian wooden statues of the Old Kingdom
A corpus of 217 wooden statues dating from the Egyptian Old Kingdom is examined and discussed in detail. 127 statues have been dated to individual reigns within the Old Kingdom and are placed in chronological order (Catalogue A). They form the basis of a chronological feature list. Using the dating criteria from the feature list, and by drawing parallels with Catalogue A, a further 75 statues (Catalogue B) have been assigned to individual reigns within the Old Kingdom. New features from Catalogue B are then added to the chronological feature list. Catalogue C comprises statues which have no parallels in Catalogue A , but do sometimes have a parallel in Catalogue B, and which in the absence so far of evidence to the contrary, may be assigned to the Old Kingdom. Appendix I discusses the texts inscribed on 51 of the statues. These consist of the names and titles of the tomb owner. The texts are usually inscribed on the bases, but in two instances they are on the skirt, and once on the sceptre. The titles are examined in detail to see whether their date range is consistent with the dates suggested in the text. Unfortunately the inscriptions give no further dating assistance. The phrase im3hw hr is examined in detail and it emerges that its use changed over time. Appendix 2 is a discussion of the material of the statues, as far as this is known. Only 8 statues have been scientifically analysed, a further 4 have been identified visually, and another 2 have unconfirmed analyses. From this meagre information it emerges that indigenous woods were preferred to imported woods. The most popular indiginous woods are sycamore and acacia. Appendix 3 is a table of the dating features based on Catalogue A which, when applied to statues not in the corpus, can assist in assigning a date to them.