Southern Cyprus, 2000-1500 B.C.
The excavations and regional survey conducted by the Kent State University Cyprus Archaeological Expedition at Episkopi Phaneromeni have contributed much to the understanding of the little known social and cultural history of southern Cyprus in the Early and Middle Bronze Age. Chapter I. In order to use the material from Phaneromeni as a criterion for the analysis of the local culture, an initial requirement was the detailed study of the architectural features and their contents at the Middle and Late Cypriot IA settlements (Areas G and A). Having determined the degree of urbanisation at she site, and what artifacts, fauna, and flora were employed or exploited by its inhabitants, viable typologies are established for the lithic, metal, terracotta and pottery finds. Chapter II presents the lithic typology and chronology (excluding chipped stone) that covers 33 categories. It concludes with a detailed discussion of Mehen and Zenet, the so-called 'gaming stones'. Chapter III presents a reassessment of pre-Late Cypriot II copper smelting technology. All well documented metal objects of this period from the Curium, Limassol and Paphos Museums are classified and dated. The discussion includes the data provided by 54 new analyses, and emphasises the dangers of comparing results from different laboratories. Chapter IV presents the terracotta typology and chronology covering 5 categories. Chapter V presents the new ceramic typology and terminology, e. g. Red Polished I South Coast, Red Polished III Mottled, Red Polished IV, Drab Polished Blue Core and Red Polished Punctured ware. Emphasis is on the relative percentages of each ware rather than a detailed evolution of shapes and decoration. Chapter VI presents the results of the regional survey and provides topical and environmental information on the main habitation/cemetery complexes. The relative percentages of wares at each site provide a settement pattern for the period, which is then compared with an analysis using the technique of non-metric multidimensional scaling.