Some aspects of the dynamic performance of machine tool structural joints
The work presented in this thesis is concerned with the dynamic behaviour of structural joints which are both loaded, and excited, normal to the joint interface. Since the forces on joints are transmitted through their interface, the surface texture of joints was carefully examined. A computerised surface measuring system was developed and computer programs were written. Surface flatness was functionally defined, measured and quantised into a form suitable for the theoretical calculation of the joint stiffness. Dynamic stiffness and damping were measured at various preloads for a range of joints with different surface textures. Dry clean and lubricated joints were tested and the results indicated an increase in damping for the lubricated joints of between 30 to 100 times. A theoretical model for the computation of the stiffness of dry clean joints was built. The model is based on the theory that the elastic recovery of joints is due to the recovery of the material behind the loaded asperities. It takes into account, in a quantitative manner, the flatness deviations present on the surfaces of the joint. The theoretical results were found to be in good agreement with those measured experimentally. It was also found that theoretical assessment of the joint stiffness could be carried out using a different model based on the recovery of loaded asperities into a spherical form. Stepwise procedures are given in order to design a joint having a particular stiffness. A theoretical model for the loss factor of dry clean joints was built. The theoretical results are in reasonable agreement with those experimentally measured. The theoretical models for the stiffness and loss factor were employed to evaluate the second natural frequency of the test rig. The results are in good agreement with the experimentally measured natural frequencies.