The Mechanics of the drawing of polygonal sections from round at elevated temperature
Economic factors such as the rise in cost of raw materials, labour and power, are compelling manufacturers of cold-drawn polygonal sections, to seek new production routes which will enable the expansion in the varieties of metals used and the inclusion of difficult-to-draw materials. One such method generating considerable industrial interest is the drawing of polygonal sections from round at elevated temperature. The technique of drawing mild steel, medium carbon steel and boron steel wire into octagonal, hexagonal and square sections from round at up to 850 deg C and 50% reduction of area in one pass has been established. The main objective was to provide a basic understanding of the process, with particular emphasis being placed on modelling using both experimental and theoretical considerations. Elevated temperature stress-strain data was obtained using a modified torsion testing machine. Data were used in the upper bound solution derived and solved numerically to predict drawing stress strain, strain-rate, temperature and flow stress distribution in the deforming zone for a range of variables. The success of this warm working process will, of course, depend on the use of a satisfactory elevated temperature lubricant, an efficient cooling system, a suitable tool material having good wear and thermal shock resistance and an efficient die profile design which incorporates the principle of least work. The merits and demerits of die materials such as tungsten carbide, chromium carbide, Syalon and Stellite are discussed, principally from the standpoint of minimising drawing force and die wear. Generally, the experimental and theoretical results were in good agreement, the drawing stress could be predicted within close limits and the process proved to be technically feasible. Finite element analysis has been carried out on the various die geometries and die materials, to gain a greater understanding of the behaviour of these dies under the process of elevated temperature drawing, and to establish the temperature distribution and thermal distortion in the deforming zone, thus establishing the optimum die design and die material for the process. It is now possible to predict, for the materials already tested, (i) the optimum drawing temperature range, (ii) the maximum possible reduction of area per pass, (iii) the optimum drawing die profiles and die materials, (iv) the most efficient lubricant in terms of reducing the drawing force and die wear.