Wear of abrasion resisting materials
The wear behaviour of a series of chromium containing white irons has been investigated under conditions of high stress grinding abrasion using a specimen on track abrasion testing machine. The measured abrasion resistance of the irons has been explained in terms of microstructure and hardness and with respect to the wear damage observed at and beneath abraded surfaces. During abrasion material removal occurred by cracking and detachment from the matrix of eutectic carbides as well as by penetration and micromachining effects of the abrasive grits being crushed at the wearing surface. Under the particular test conditions used martensitic matrix structures gave higher resistance to abrasion than austenitic or pearlitic. However, no simple relationship was found between general hardness or matrix microhardness at wear surfaces and abrasion resistance, and the test yielded pessimistic results for austenitic irons. The fine structures of the 15% Cr and 30% Cr alloys were studied by thin foil transmission electron microscopy. It was found that both the matrix and carbide constituents could be thinned for examination at 100 Kv using conventional dishing followed by ion beam thinning. Flany of the rodlike eutectic N7C3 carbides were seen to consist of clusters of scalier rods with individual 117C3 crystals quite often containing central cores of matrix constituent. 3oth eutectic and secondary N7C3 carbides were found to contain stacking faults on planes normal to the basal plane. In the eutectic carbides in the 30A Cr iron there was evidence of an in-situ PI7C3 C. transition which had taken place during the hardening heat treatment of this alloy. In the as-cast austenitic matrix iron strain induced martensite was produced at the wear surface contributing to work hardening. The significance of these findings have been discussed in relation to wear performance.