Transfer coefficients over inclined tube banks
The thesis presents experimental results for shell-side transfer coefficients and pressure drops across four different tube banks, using small-scale models, with yawed tubes, as found in many types of heat exchangers, boilers and nuclear reactors. The tube banks investigated have a staggered tube layout on a rotated square pitch, with a 1.25 pitch-to-diameter ratio. The angle of attack was varied between 45o and 90o. An extensive range of Reynolds number, i.e. 0.5. to 12,600, covering so-called laminar, transition and turbulent flows, was investigated. A diffusion-controlled electrochemical mass transfer technique has been employed to measure mass transfer coefficients. The heat transfer coefficients may be then readily obtained from the mass transfer values by applying the well-established Chilton-Colburn analogy. The results for the normal tube bank, which forms the base case for the study on inclined tube banks, show close agreement with previous work. The transfer coefficients and pressure drops of the inclined tube banks are compared with results from the ideal normal tube bank to examine the effect of inclination angle on heat transfer and pressure drop variations. The variation of the transfer coefficients row-by-row and the entrance and exit effects have also been investigated. An auxilary investigation has been carried out on the role of natural convection. A preliminary correlation of transfer coefficients and pressure drops against the variation in the yaw angle has been attempted. The results are discussed in the light of the few existing theoretical treatments and experimental data for these situations, and recommendations made for future work.