Metabolic power budgeting in fishes : laboratory studies in zebra fish, Brachydanio rerio and heart-rate telemetry in pike, Esox lucius
Metabolic power budgeting, the regulation of metabolism with respect ot metabolic scope, was studied in the laboratory in zebra fish using respirometry, and in the field on pike using heart-rate telemetry. Increased food consumption by zebra fish resulted in higher growth, mortality and metabolism. The magnitudes of the components of metabolism: maximum metabolism, standard metabolism, routine metabolism and feeding metabolism were measured. Power budgets for zebra fish fed high and low rations were constructed. Fish fed high rations worked harder than fish fed lower rations, but were apparently not working near the upper limit of the metabolic scope. Possible mechanisms for growth-related mortality are considered. Biological information on the populations of pike in Lochs Kinord and Davan (Grampian Highlands) were gathered. The population of L. Kinord was dominated by young, small fish; apparently due to exploitation. L. Davan is unexploited and had a pike population consisting of a much wider range of ages and sizes. Methods for assessing regurgitation by pike were developed. Effects of long and short-term temperature fluctuations, and feeding on heart rate of captive pike were studied. Resting heart rate increased exponentially with increasing temperature; heart rate appeared to accommodate all changes in resting metabolism. Post-prandial heart-rate records could be used to accurately estimate meal size. Gastric evacuation rates corresponded to digestion times estimated from heart-rate records. Heart-rate telemetry was used to study metabolic power budgeting, feeding and activity of wild pike from Lochs Kinord and Davan in June 1988. Pike worked mainly at low power levels relative to metabolic scope. Tachycardias associated with localized movement were frequent, and such movement was accurately recorded by heart-rate telemetry but frequently undetected by conventional means. Feeding events were identified and the metabolic costs of survival estimated. Some unusually energetically-expensive localized movements were recorded; the possible reasons for this are discussed. Intraperitoneal implantation techniques were developed for transmitter attachment on pike. Experments using dummy transmitters on pike and rainbow trout showed no effect on growth, survival or reproduction, but tissue reactions differed. Male and female pike, location-tracked with implanted transmitters before, during and after spawning time exhibited increased overall activity during the apparent spawning period, as well as changes in diet activity. Males were significantly more active than females in three out of seven weeks. Spawning appears to be a period of high energy expenditure for pike.