Dynamic simulation of chemical plant
A CSSL- type modular FORTRAN package, called ACES, has been developed to assist in the simulation of the dynamic behaviour of chemical plant. ACES can be harnessed, for instance, to simulate the transients in startups or after a throughput change. ACES has benefited from two existing simulators. The structure was adapted from ICL SLAM and most plant models originate in DYFLO. The latter employs sequential modularisation which is not always applicable to chemical engineering problems. A novel device of twice- round execution enables ACES to achieve general simultaneous modularisation. During the FIRST ROUND, STATE-VARIABLES are retrieved from the integrator and local calculations performed. During the SECOND ROUND, fresh derivatives are estimated and stored for simultaneous integration. ACES further includes a version of DIFSUB, a variable-step integrator capable of handling stiff differential systems. ACES is highly formalised . It does not use pseudo steady- state approximations and excludes inconsistent and arbitrary features of DYFLO. Built- in debug traps make ACES robust. ACES shows generality, flexibility, versatility and portability, and is very convenient to use. It undertakes substantial housekeeping behind the scenes and thus minimises the detailed involvement of the user. ACES provides a working set of defaults for simulation to proceed as far as possible. Built- in interfaces allow for reactions and user supplied algorithms to be incorporated . New plant models can be easily appended. Boundary- value problems and optimisation may be tackled using the RERUN feature. ACES is file oriented; a STATE can be saved in a readable form and reactivated later. Thus piecewise simulation is possible. ACES has been illustrated and verified to a large extent using some literature-based examples. Actual plant tests are desirable however to complete the verification of the library. Interaction and graphics are recommended for future work.