Improving diagnosis and oral vaccination strategies against bovine tuberculosis
In this work peptide antigens [ESAT-6,p45 in water (1ml, 1mg/ml)] have been adsorbed onto 10mg inorganic substrates (hydroxyapatite (MHA P201;P120, CHA), polystyrene, calcium carbonate and glass microspheres) and in vitro release characteristics were determined. The aim of formulation was to enhance the interaction of peptides with antigen presenting cells and to achieve rapid peptide release from the carrier compartment system in a mildly acidic environment. Hydroxyapatite microparticle P201 has a greater surface area and thus has the largest peptide adsorption compared to the P120. CHA gave a further higher adsorption due to larger surface area than that available on microparticles. These particles were incorporated into the BOVIGAMTM assay to determine if they improve the sensitivity. After overnight incubation the blood plasma was removed and the amount of IFN-g in each plasma sample was estimated. CHA and MHA P201 gave a significantly higher immune response at low peptide concentration compared to the free peptide, thus indicating that these systems can be used to evaluate Tuberculosis (TB) amongst cattle using the BOVIGAMTM assay. Badgers are a source of TB and pass infection to cattle. At the moment vaccination against TB in badgers is via the parenteral route and requires a trained veterinary surgeon as well as catching the badgers. This process is expensive and time consuming; consequently an oral delivery system for delivery of BCG vaccines is easier and cheaper. The initial stage involved addition of various surfactants and suspending agents to disperse BCG and the second stage involved testing for BCG viability. Various copolymers of Eudragit were used as enteric coating systems to protect BCG against the acidic environment of the stomach (SGF, 0.1M HCl pH 1.2 at 37oC) while dissolving completely in the alkaline environment of the small intestine (SIF, IM PBS solution pH 7.4 at 37oC). Eudragit L100 dispersed in 2ml PBS solution and 0.9ml Tween 80 (0.1%w/v) gave the best results remaining intact in SGF loosing only approximately 10-15% of the initial weight and dissolving completely within 3 hours. BCG was incorporated within the matrix formulation adjusted to pH 7 at the initial formulation stage containing PBS solution and Tween 80. It gave viability of x106 cfu/ml at initial formulation stage, freezing and freeze-drying stages. After this stage the matrix was compressed at 4 tons for 3 mins and placed in SGF for 2 hours and then in SIF until dissolved. The BCG viability dropped to x106 cfu/ml. There is potential to develop it further for oral delivery of BCG vaccine.