Use of antibiotics in Greek mariculture
Bacteriological survey of the fish pathogens in Greek mariculture between 1994- 1997 was followed by analysis of prevalence in sea bass, sea bream, sharpsnout bream and common Dentex and discussion of the impact of various fish pathogens. In addition antibiotic resistance profiles and frequencies were studied using quantitative antibiogram and MIC analysis for the two most commonly used antibiotics Oxolinic acid and Oxytetracycline and clinically relevant MIC breakpoints were extrapolated for different fish species and main fish pathogens. The kinetics of the above antimicrobials were analysed in eight experiments where two fish species namely sea bass and sea bream as well as two water temperatures were employed. Muscle, liver, serum, skin samples were analysed by two HPLC methods and two bioassay methods were developed. The relative importance and significance of these findings was evaluated in the general context of pharmacokinetic studies in fish. Kinetic data were compared to clinical data and practical implications were evaluated. Issues like antibiotic resistance and its implications, the implications of residues and resistance in human health and the environment were analysed in order to put this study in context. Conclusions tackled important aspects of antimicrobial chemotherapy and future work was suggested.