A computer analysis of the geochemistry and mineralogy together with the petrology of the Upper Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian shales of Kansas, U.S.A.
The objectives of this thesis are twofold; firstly, to conduct a detailed geochemical, mineralogical and petrological survey of the Upper Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Shales of Kansas, U.S.A., and to relate the variation observed in the stratigraphic and tectonic framework of the Mid-Continent during this period. Secondly, it was necessary to study the instrumental techniques applied to fine-sprained rocks, to develop standardized procedures and where appropriate to implement new techniques. Six facies are developed in Kansas Shales - a sand and siltstone facies and a brown clayey shale facies, corresponding to deltaic sands and silts and prodeltaic marine muds respectively, a, calcareous grey shale facies and a black shale facies, deposited in normal marine and restricted marine environments respectively, and two minor facies, a purple and red shale facies and shale parting's in Limestones. The first two facies normally constitute the thick shale Formations (outside shales) separating Limestone Formations in which the second facies pair develop (inside shales). The facies distributions subdivide the stratigraphic section into five zones - the Pleasanton and Lower Kansas City Groups (with cycles of marine and deltaic shales) the Upper Kansas City, Lansing end Douglas Groups, the Shawnee Group (containing cycles), the Wabaunsee Group and the Admire, Clia.se and Council Grove Groups. A combined standards regression technique was implemented for quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis of shale mineralogy. The smear technique of ZRD sample preparation was shown to be superior for distinguishing between shale samples although the pressed pellet and membrane filter techniques (developed in this thesis) were considered more appropriate to this study. Major oxide and trace element concentrations were determined by emission spectroscopy. Structural sites of ions in shales were estimated by electron spin resonance. Fabrics of shales were examined by scanning electron microscopy and micro morphological techniques.