Characterization of endoplasmic reticulum from castor bean and the cloning of a plant phosphatase : a basis for comprehensive plant organelle proteomics research
The plant endoplasmic reticulum is the location of storage oil and membrane lipid assembly, and for fatty acid modifying reactions (desaturation, elongation, hydroxylation). It therefore represents a source of enzymes involved in these processes. Many of these defy traditional purification strategies. In this study, ER membranes have been isolated biochemically pure and in milligram quanties from the endosperm of developing and germinating castor bean. One-dimensional SDS- PAGE, used to routinely assess sample integrity, showed resolution limitations. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was optimized regarding sample preparation and solubilization, and reproducible profiles confirmed its suitability as a sound basis for analysis of stage-specific ER components. In large format 2-D experiments, preparative loadings were reproducibly resolved. MALDI TOP mass spectrometry was evaluated for high throughput peptide signature generation with individual ER components. Resolution problems were again highlighted with 1-D separations, although some functional assignments were made. Subsequently analysis of selected spots from a preparative 2-D gel of germinating ER was used to establish the limitations of the procedure. Database matching of a single component at very low levels of mass error tolerance also demonstrated the power and accuracy of the technology. Membranes were subfractionated to simplify protein patterns. It is proposed that an organellar approach, including subfractionation, provides enrichment of specific subsets of cellular components. A putative plant phosphatidic acid phosphatase gene has been investigated following identification from the EST database. The aim of this research is the identification of proteins involved in storage lipid synthesis in castor bean in reactions specific to the endoplasmic reticulum.