Title:

Vertex splitting and connectivity augmentation in hypergraphs

We consider problems of splitting and connectivity augmentation in hypergraphs. In a hypergraph G = (V +s, E), to split two edges su, sv, is to replace them with a single edge uv. We are interested in doing this in such a way as to preserve a defined level of connectivity in V . The splitting technique is often used as a way of adding new edges into a graph or hypergraph, so as to augment the connectivity to some prescribed level. We begin by providing a short history of work done in this area. Then several preliminary results are given in a general form so that they may be used to tackle several problems. We then analyse the hypergraphs G = (V + s, E) for which there is no split preserving the localedgeconnectivity present in V. We provide two structural theorems, one of which implies a slight extension to Mader’s classical splitting theorem. We also provide a characterisation of the hypergraphs for which there is no such “good” split and a splitting result concerned with a specialisation of the localconnectivity function. We then use our splitting results to provide an upper bound on the smallest number of sizetwo edges we must add to any given hypergraph to ensure that in the resulting hypergraph we have λ(x, y) ≥ r(x, y) for all x, y in V, where r is an integer valued, symmetric requirement function on V*V. This is the so called “localedgeconnectivity augmentation problem” for hypergraphs. We also provide an extension to a Theorem of Szigeti, about augmenting to satisfy a requirement r, but using hyperedges. Next, in a result born of collaborative work with Zoltán Király from Budapest, we show that the localconnectivity augmentation problem is NPcomplete for hypergraphs. Lastly we concern ourselves with an augmentation problem that includes a locational constraint. The premise is that we are given a hypergraph H = (V,E) with a bipartition P = {P1, P2} of V and asked to augment it with sizetwo edges, so that the result is kedgeconnected, and has no new edge contained in some P(i). We consider the splitting technique and describe the obstacles that prevent us forming “good” splits. From this we deduce results about which hypergraphs have a complete Pksplit. This leads to a minimax result on the optimal number of edges required and a polynomial algorithm to provide an optimal augmentation.
