Service innovation : managing the interpretations and learning while innovating
The present research has threefold aims: I/ To, review the existing research on service innovation and to demonstrate the existence and relevance of an innovation model, distinct from the one well identified for the products or processes; 2/ To demonstrate the interest of the multi-stage organisational learning model as being relevant for describing the nature of the innovative process in services; 3/ To validate the relevance of this model when applied to case studies. After having reviewed the literature on service innovation and on individual and organisational learning, the research tested the relevance of the model by the implementation of two case studies. The collection of data was realised all along the two projects, selected in sectors of bank and retailing. Longitudinal methodologies was adopted in order to validating the temporaL dimension of learning. Multiple interviews and triangulation provided reliable empirical data. The results led to conclude on the relevance of multi-stage organisational learning models. Development process may be understood as a learning process realised by successive interactions at the different levels of the organisation that are the individual, group and organisation. However, rather than being embedded into physical features, the results of learning processes are "frozen" into new organisational routines, procedures, rules, and expost rationalisations. Consequently a model of New Service Development is proposed that could contribute to the improvement of the development process.