Scotland, Denmark-Norway and the House of Stuart 1603-1660 : a diplomatic and military analysis
This thesis redresses the belief that there was little or no diplomatic or political relationship between Scotland and Denmark-Norway from the start of the British reign of James VI and I in 1603 to the Restoration of Charles II in 1660. In fact the sixteenth century relationship with Scotland continued to develop into the reign of Charles II. By examining the identity of Charles I and the evolving 'British' state, Scotland and her foreign relations are placed in a clear context. Previously prominent Stuart diplomats, like Sir Robert Anstruther, Sir James Spen or Sir Andrew Sinclair have been known as English diplomats rather than Scottish or British and were presumed to be working for the benefit of England rather than Scotland or even greater 'Britain'. Although Scotland and England usually shared both a single monarch and a common corps diplomatique, between 1603-1660 Scottish and English foreign policy frequently differed. In addition the polices of the House of Stuart frequently clashed with the agendas of the two British parliaments and of Denmark-Norway. Despite binding alliances with Christian IV in 1618, 1621 and 1625, Charles I and the English state adopted a policy of war against France and Spain which meant that Christian IV had to rely on Scotland for military support during his war against the Habsburg empire. Nearly 14,000 Scots went to the aid of the Danish king. This Scottish policy of military intervention continued between 1625-1660 and is here statistically evaluated in comparison to the involvement of England and Ireland in Denmark-Norway. When Charles I's policies threatened the independence of the Scottish nation in the 1630s and the integrity of the English Parliament in the 1640s, Christian IV found himself courted by all sides. Denmark-Norway's position at the gateway to the Baltic ensured the diplomatic and military attention of factions from the British Isles, including Scotsmen, until the Montrosian campaign in 1650. After the date Danish-Norwegian political attention became increasingly drawn to the English Republic although Scottish relations still involved significant military recruitment until the end of the decade.