Petrogenesis of Late Cenozoic collision volcanism in Western Anatolia, Turkey
Western Anatolia exhibits a record of almost all stages of a collision event and its related magmatic processes. Following an Eocene continent-arc collision, Western Anatolia region experienced a complete cycle of thickening and orogenic collapse. The early stage of collision- related volcanism, which was most evident during the Early Miocene (<21 Ma), produced a considerable volume of lavas and pyroclastic deposits covering a broad compositional range from basaltic andesites to rhyolites. The volcanic activity continued into the Middle Miocene with a gradual change in eruptive style and rock compositions. The Middle Miocene activity, formed in relation to localised extensional basins and was dominated by lava flows and dykes of basalts to andesites composition. Both the Early-Middle Miocene rocks have calc-alkaline and shoshonitic character. The late stage volcanism, from 11.0 to 8.3 Ma, was marked by alkali basalts and basanites erupted along the localised extensional zones. The Early-Middle Miocene volcanic rocks exhibit enrichment in LILE and LREE relative to the HFSE (characterised by negative Nb and Ta anomalies) and are characterised by high (^87)Sr/(^86)Sr and low (^143)Nd/(^144)Nd (-ɛno) ratios. These characteristics indicate a mantle lithospheric source region carrying a subduction component inherited from a pre-collision subduction event. Perturbation of this subduction-metasomatised lithosphere by delamination of the thermal boundary layer is the likely mechanism for the initiation of the post-collision magmatism. Trace elements systematics suggest that the Early-Middle Miocene series underwent a hydrous crystallisation (dominated by pargasitic amphibole) in deep crustal magma chambers. Subsequent crystallisation in shallower magma chambers follows two different trends: (1) anhydrous (pyroxene + plagioclase-dominated; and (2) hydrous (edenitic amphibole + plagioclase + pyroxene dominated).Trace element and isotope modelling shows that the Early-Middle Miocene rocks have been affected by assimilation combined with fractional crystallisation processes, and that the effects of assimilation decrease gradually from the Early Miocene into the Middle Miocene. This indicates a progressive crustal thinning related to the extensional tectonics that prevailed from the latest Early Miocene onwards. In contrast to the Early-Middle Miocene rocks, the Late Miocene alkaline rocks are characterised by low (^87)Sr/(^86)Sr and high (^143)Nd/(^144)Nd (+ɛnd) ratios and have OIB-type like trace element patterns characterised by enrichment in LILE, HFSE and L-MREE, and a slight depletion in HREE, relative to the N-MORB compositions. REE inversion modelling indicates that these rocks formed by partial melting (with degrees of ~2 to -10%) of a spinel + garnet Iherzolite source. Trace element and isotopic systematics are consistent with decompression melting of an enriched mantle asthenospheric source.