Numerical techniques for computational aeroacoustics
The problem of aerodynamic noise is considered following the Computational Aeroacoustics approach which is based on direct numerical simulation of the sound field. In the region of sound generation, the unsteady airflow is computed separately from the sound using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. Overlapping this region and extending further away is the acoustic domain where the linearised Euler equations governing the sound propagation in moving medium are solved numerically. After considering a finite volume technique of improved accuracy, preference is given to an optimised higher order finite difference scheme which is validated against analytical solutions of the governing equations. A coupling technique of two different CFD codes with the acoustic solver is demonstrated to capture the mechanism of sound generation by vortices hitting solid objects in the flow. Sub-grid turbulence and its effect 011sound generation has not been considered in this thesis. The contribution made to the knowledge of Computational Aeroacoustics can be summarised in the following: 1) Extending the order of accuracy of the staggered leap-frog method for the linearised Euler equations in both finite volume and finite difference formulations; 2) Heuristically determined optimal coefficients for the staggered dispersion relation preserving scheme; 3) A solution procedure for the linearised Euler equations involving mirroring at solid boundaries which combines the flexibility of the finite volume method with the higher accuracy of the finite difference schemes; 4) A method for identifying the sound sources in the CFD solution at solid walls and an expansion technique for sound sources inside the flow; 5) Better understanding of the three-level structure of the motions in air: mean flow, flow perturbations, and acoustic waves. It can be used, together with detailed simulation results, in the search for ways of reducing the aerodynamic noise generated by propellers, jets, wind turbines, tunnel exits, and wind-streamed buildings.