Development of environmental education guidelines for secondary science teacher education programmes in the Sudan's universities
The study is an attempt to ascertain the status of environmental education in secondary science teacher education programmes in the Sudan's universities and the science programmes of the secondary school curriculum. In addition, it explores how the shortcomings of these programmes could be rectified in accordance with the emerging philosophy of environmental education. Four instruments were used to collect the research data. Science teacher educators' and science teachers' Questionnaires used previously in Malaysia, were modified and adapted for this study. Students' Questionnaires were developed by the researcher. The research instruments were pilot tested in the Sudan in December 1991, and used in the main study in February/March 1992. The research respondents comprised 20 science teacher educators, 88 science teachers, 107 prospective science teachers and 240 secondary school students. They were selected from colleges and faculties of education in the Sudan's universities and Khartoum state academic secondary schools, in the academic year 1991/1992. It was found that Environmental Education perspectives were poorly incorporated into both secondary science teacher education programmes and the science programmes of the Sudan's secondary school curriculum. Need exists for the shortcomings of these programmes to be rectified and the constraints hindering their environmentalisation addressed. Both prospective science teachers and secondary school students are well aware of the Sudan's environmental concerns. They perceived themselves competent to investigate, evaluate and take action in issues related to their environment. They also expressed positive attitudes towards the environment and the incorporation of environmental education perspectives into the science programmes of the Sudan's secondary schools. A set of Environmental Education guidelines was finally developed. They are based on the findings of this study survey, experts' opinions obtained from the literature, as well as the author's own conception of what Environmental Education for science teachers should be. They are presented in three domains: (1) knowledge of basic environmental concerns; (2) skills for teaching environmental issues and values; and (3) attitudes favourable to Environmental Education.